henri ii angleterre
 Juries were introduced in petty assizes from around 1176, where they were used to establish the answers to particular pre-established questions, and in grand assizes from 1179, where they were used to determine the guilt of a defendant. j. boussard, Le Gouvernement d'Henri II Plantagenêt (Paris 1956).  Louis's forces moved to attack Aquitaine. Henry II Of England - Encyclopaedia Britannica 1911 Christopher Harper-Bill; Nicholas Vincent (2007).  The weather was extremely hot, the King was increasingly ill and he appears to have wanted to die peacefully in Anjou rather than fight yet another campaign. 235, 237.  By the 1180s this new class of royal administrators was predominant in England, supported by various illegitimate members of Henry's family. [nb 10] Efforts were made to restore the system of royal justice and the royal finances.  The ownership of the Auvergne and parts of the Berry were put to an arbitration panel, which reported in favour of Henry; Henry followed up this success by purchasing La Marche from the local count. 85–86; Warren, pp. One potential explanation is his general courtesy to a member of his extended family; another is that he was starting to consider how to end the war peacefully, and saw this as a way of building a relationship with Henry.  This desertion proved the final shock and the King finally collapsed into a fever, regaining consciousness only for a few moments, during which he gave confession. Recueil des actes de Henri II, roi d'Angleterre et duc de Normandie : concernant les provinces francÌ¨aises et les affaires de France by Henry (Book) 6 editions published between 1909 and 1916 in French and held by 32 WorldCat member libraries worldwide , Henry tried to maintain a sophisticated household that combined hunting and drinking with cosmopolitan literary discussion and courtly values. Born 5 March 1133 - Le Mans, 72181, Sarthe, Pays de la Loire, France; Deceased 6 July 1189 - Chinon, 37072, Indre et Loire, Centre, France,aged 56 years old; King of England (1154-1189) Parents. , Meanwhile, Henry turned his attention to the Duchy of Brittany, which neighboured his lands and was traditionally largely independent from the rest of France, with its own language and culture.  Louis seized on the case, and, despite efforts by the Norman church to prevent the French church from taking action, a new interdict was announced on Henry's possessions. 89–102, cited Vincent (2007b), p. 287; Eyton (1878). See Matiland and Milsom in Biancalana on this.  The pope supported Becket's case in principle but needed Henry's support in dealing with Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, so he repeatedly sought a negotiated solution; the Norman church also intervened to try to assist Henry in finding a solution. , Henry now appeared to his contemporaries to be stronger than ever, and he was courted as an ally by many European leaders and asked to arbitrate over international disputes in Spain and Germany. Henry VII (Welsh: Harri Tudur; 28 January 1457 â 21 April 1509) was the King of England and Lord of Ireland from his seizure of the crown on 22 August 1485 to his death. 184, 187.  Henry was then free to turn his forces south against the besiegers at Wallingford.  This removed the most obvious other claimant to the throne, as while Stephen had another son, William, he was only a second son and appeared unenthusiastic about making a plausible claim on the throne.  A new penny, called the Short Cross, was introduced, and the number of mints reduced substantially to ten across the country. Louis invariably attempted to take the moral high ground in respect to Henry, capitalising on his reputation as a crusader and circulating rumours about his rival's behaviour and character. Henry never formally became Duke of Brittany as he was only holding the duchy on behalf of Geoffrey and Constance. The Great Revolt was only defeated by Henry's vigorous military action and talented local commanders, many of them "new men" appointed for their loyalty and administrative skills. Decisively defeated by Philip and Richard and suffering from a bleeding ulcer, Henry retreated to Chinon Castle in Anjou.  Various suggestions have been put forward to explain Henry's family's bitter disputes, from their inherited family genetics to the failure of Henry and Eleanor's parenting.  Henry was expected to provide for the future of his legitimate children, either through granting lands to his sons or marrying his daughters well. He decided that he would divide up his empire after his death, with Young Henry receiving England and Normandy, Richard being given the Duchy of Aquitaine, and Geoffrey acquiring Brittany. Reigned 1154–89; founder of the English common law; b.  Despite only modest military successes, he and his allies now controlled the south-west, the Midlands and much of the north of England. , Over the next summer, Stephen massed troops to renew the siege of Wallingford Castle in a final attempt to take the stronghold. Earlier generations of historians have placed greater emphasis on the transformative nature of Henry's legal reforms than more contemporary historians; the 19th-century historian.  They met at Ballan, where Henry, only just able to remain seated on his horse, agreed to a complete surrender: he would do homage to Philip; he would give up Alys to a guardian and she would marry Richard at the end of the coming crusade; he would recognise Richard as his heir; he would pay Philip compensation, and key castles would be given to Philip as a guarantee.  Writing in the 1190s, William of Newburgh commented that "in his own time he was hated by almost everyone"; Henry was widely criticised by his own contemporaries, even within his own court. [nb 5] Henry's father advised him to come to terms with Louis and peace was made between them in August 1151 after mediation by Bernard of Clairvaux. .  Word then reached Henry that King William had been defeated and captured by local forces at Alnwick, crushing the rebel cause in the north. Jolliffe, p. 140, cited by Gillingham (1984), p. 53.  In the coming years, although Henry never actually went on crusade, he exploited the growing "cult of Becket" for his own ends.  At around this time he was also probably secretly planning his marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine, then still the wife of Louis. Within the âCite this articleâ tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. D.N.B. Stephen's reasons for doing so are unclear. Henri II devient duc de Normandie en 1150 (que son père lui cède) et comte d'Anjou et du Maine en 1151 à la mort de son père. 278–279; Crouch (2002), p. 276. HENRY VII (ENGLAND) (1457â1509; ruled 1485â1509), king of England. Stephen agreed to a peace treaty after Henry's military expedition to England in 1153, and Henry inherited the kingdom on Stephen's death a year later. , The Angevin Empire and court was, as historian John Gillingham describes it, "a family firm".  Henry was not prepared to directly attack Louis, who was still his feudal lord, and withdrew, settling himself with ravaging the surrounding county, seizing castles and taking the province of Quercy.  Henry refused the bait and instead focused on crushing opposition in south-west France.  At the start of 1161 war seemed likely to spread across the region, until a fresh peace was negotiated at Fréteval that autumn, followed by a second peace treaty in 1162, overseen by Pope Alexander III.  The court was relatively formal in its style and language, possibly because Henry was attempting to compensate for his own sudden rise to power and relatively humble origins as the son of a count. 121–122.  Encouraged by Eleanor, Henry first allied himself with Raymond's enemy Raymond Berenguer of Barcelona and then in 1159 threatened to invade himself to depose the Count of Tolouse. Henry's empire quickly collapsed during the reign of his son John (who succeeded Richard), but many of the changes Henry introduced during his long rule had long-term consequences.  The canons of St Augustine's in Bristol also helped in Henry's education, and he remembered them with affection in later years. , Henry's wealth allowed him to maintain what was probably the largest curia regis, or royal court, in Europe.  Richard's campaign undermined the truce between Henry and Philip and both sides again mobilised large forces in anticipation of war. Henry roi d'Angleterre II, Henry, koning van Engeland, 1133-1189.  Alys (also spelled "Alice") came to England and later became the mistress of King Henry, which explains why she was not married to Richard as originally intended. , Henry controlled more of France than any ruler since the Carolingians; these lands, combined with his possessions in England, Wales, Scotland and much of Ireland, produced a vast domain often referred to by historians as the Angevin Empire. He was the first monarch of the House of Tudor.  The conference broke up with war appearing likely, but Philip and Richard launched a surprise attack immediately afterwards during what was conventionally a period of truce. , To draw Stephen's forces away from Wallingford, Henry besieged Stephen's castle at Malmesbury, and the King responded by marching west with an army to relieve it. , These growing tensions between Henry and Louis finally spilled over into open war in 1167, triggered by a trivial argument over how money destined for the Crusader states of the Levant should be collected.  Meanwhile, the fighting in England proved evenly balanced until a royal army defeated a superior force of rebel and Flemish reinforcements in September in the battle of Fornham near Fornham All Saints in East Anglia. Before he was 40 he controlled England, large parts of Wales, the eastern half of Ireland and the western half of France—an area that would later come to be called the Angevin Empire. Documents about Henri II (roi d'Angleterre, 1133-1189) (26 resources in data.bnf.fr) Books (26) Instruction for a Ruler (2018) Henry the Young King, 1155-1183 (2016) Retrieved December 21, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/henry-ii-king-england.  Henry and Stephen took the opportunity to speak together privately about a potential end to the war; conveniently for Henry, Stephen's son Eustace fell ill and died shortly afterwards. Several grievances underpinned the revolt. He died soon afterwards and was succeeded by Richard.  During the negotiations, Philip suggested to Richard that they should ally against Henry, marking the start of a new strategy to divide the father and son. (December 21, 2020).  More detailed study of the written records left by Henry has cast doubt on some earlier interpretations: Robert Eyton's ground-breaking 1878 work tracing Henry's itinerary through deductions from the pipe rolls, for example, has been criticised as being too certain a way of determining location or court attendance. 248–294. The Norman invasion of Ireland provided lands for his youngest son John (later a king), but Henry struggled to find ways to satisfy all his sons' desires for land and immediate power. Translator. Ibn-Munqidh, Usama. Gillingham (2007b), pp.  Despite the size and scope of the crisis, Henry had several advantages, including his control of many powerful royal castles in strategic areas, control of most of the English ports throughout the war, and his continuing popularity within the towns across his empire.  Henry refused, but agreed to increase his son's allowance.  Nonetheless, he was prepared to take action to improve the existing procedures, intervening in cases which he felt had been mishandled, and creating legislation to improve both ecclesiastical and civil court processes.  During the disputed papal election of 1159, Henry, like Louis, supported Alexander III over his rival Victor IV. , Henry's relationship with his two surviving heirs was fraught.  The reforms continued and Henry created the General Eyre, probably in 1176, which involved dispatching a group of royal justices to visit all the counties in England over a given period of time, with authority to cover both civil and criminal cases. Turner (2009), p. 37; Warren (2000), p. 596. Opinions as to the nature of Henry's empire have shifted over time and the term "empire" has itself been criticised. Suggest as a translation of "Henri ii Angleterre" Copy; DeepL Translator Linguee.  Richard was enthusiastic and announced his intention to join the crusade, and Henry and Philip announced their similar intent at the start of 1188. His last years were unhappy.  As a powerful ruler, Henry was able to provide either valuable patronage or impose devastating harm on his subjects. page 44 note 2 For the question of murderers of clerks in the canon law during this period and the previous decades, see Foreville, Raymonde, L'Église et la Royauté en Angleterre sous Henri II, Paris 1943, 426 â7. , One of the major international events surrounding Henry during the 1160s was the Becket controversy. Publication date 1920 Topics Henry II, King of England, 1133-1189 Publisher Paris, Impr. Henri II est le fils de Geoffroi Plantagenêt comte d'Anjou et de Mathilde fille du roi d'Angleterre Henri Ier Beauclerc. , Geoffrey died in September 1151, and Henry postponed his plans to return to England, as he first needed to ensure that his succession, particularly in Anjou, was secure. (1976). [nb 26] Elsewhere in France, Henry attempted to seize the Auvergne, much to the anger of the French King.  Henry's familiares were particularly important to the operation of his household and government, driving government initiatives and filling the gaps between the official structures and the King.  Some of these outbursts may have been theatrical and for effect.  Eleanor was the Duchess of Aquitaine, a land in the south of France, and was considered beautiful, lively and controversial, but had not borne Louis any sons.  In 1181 Geoffrey finally married Constance of Brittany and became Duke of Brittany; by now most of Brittany accepted Angevin rule, and Geoffrey was able to deal with the remaining disturbances on his own. 78–79; Vincent (2007a), pp. 33 Sigebert of Gembloux, Chronicon, ed.  He died on 6 July 1189, aged 56; he had wished to be interred at Grandmont Abbey in the Limousin, but the hot weather made transporting his body impractical and he was instead buried at the nearby Fontevraud Abbey.  Louis organised a coalition against Henry, including Stephen, Eustace, Henry I, Count of Champagne, and Robert, Count of Perche.  Open war broke out in 1183 and Henry and Richard led a joint campaign into Aquitaine: before they could conclude it, Young Henry caught a fever and died, bringing a sudden end to the rebellion. Accurately converting 12th century financial sums into modern equivalents is impossible; for comparison 15,000, Blockmans and Hoppenbrouwers, p. 173; Aurell (2003); Vincent (2007a), pp.  In Aquitaine, ducal authority remained very limited, despite increasing significantly during Henry's reign, largely due to Richard's efforts in the late 1170s.  With the death of Geoffrey, the relationship between Henry and Philip broke down.  The process of demolishing the unauthorised castles from the war continued.  The legal argument was complex at the time and remains contentious.  New taxes were introduced and the existing accounts re-audited, and the reforms of the legal system brought in new streams of money from fines and amercements.  Contemporaneous accounts suggest he left the main castles in Poitou to Geoffrey, implying that he may have intended Henry to retain Normandy and Anjou but not Poitou. After Henry’s death, Alys returned to France and in 1195 married William Talvas, Count of Ponthieu.  The peace remained precarious, and Stephen's son William remained a possible future rival to Henry.  Philip invaded the Berry and Henry mobilised a large army which confronted the French at Châteauroux, before papal intervention brought a truce.  In an effort to reinvigorate the plan, Philip, the Count of Flanders, announced his intention to invade England and sent an advance force into East Anglia. Kastovsky, p. 247; Vincent (2007b), p. 326.  In 1160 Louis strengthened his alliances in central France with the Count of Champagne and Odo II, Duke of Burgundy. Dunbabin, p. 51; Power (2007), pp.  Diarmait put together a force of Anglo-Norman and Flemish mercenaries drawn from the Welsh Marches, including Richard de Clare, Earl of Pembroke. .  Further south, the power of the dukes of Aquitaine over the local church was much less than in the north, and Henry's efforts to extend his influence over local appointments created tensions. He died on July 8, 1189 in Chinon Castle, near Tours, Maine Province, France. Barlow (1986), p. 272; Weiler, pp.  Despite initially causing considerable panic, the expedition had little success, and Henry found himself unable to pay his forces and therefore unable to return to Normandy. Henry was born in 1132, in Le Mans , Sarthe, Pays de la Loire, France. Henry's desire to reform the relationship with the Church led to conflict with his former friend Thomas Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury. , With his eldest son dead, Henry rearranged the plans for the succession: Richard was to be made king of England, although without any actual power until the death of his father. King (2010), p. 185; Warren (2000), p. 38. With his new lands, Henry now possessed a much larger proportion of France than Louis. Edmund King believes Henry's attack never got close to York; R. The details of the chroniclers' descriptions are clearly influenced by, Historians are uncertain which dialect or dialects of medieval French were referred to in this context; the original chronicler simply refers to Henry speaking ". Warren (2000), p. 44; Hallam and Everard, p. 160. Henry II, King of England, 1133-1189 .  Young Henry wrote to the pope, complaining about his father's behaviour, and began to acquire allies, including King William of Scotland and the Counts of Boulogne, Flanders and Blois—all of whom were promised lands if Young Henry won. [nb 4] In his youth Henry enjoyed warfare, hunting and other adventurous pursuits; as the years went by he put increasing energy into judicial and administrative affairs and became more cautious, but throughout his life he was energetic and frequently impulsive.  After the Assize of Clarendon in 1166, royal justice was extended into new areas through the use of new forms of assizes, in particular novel disseisin, mort d'ancestor and dower unde nichil habet, which dealt with the wrongful dispossession of land, inheritance rights and the rights of widows respectively. Henry II, King of England, 1133-1189 Title ; Close. 124–125.  For about a year, Henry lived alongside Roger of Worcester, one of Robert's sons, and was instructed by a magister, Master Matthew; Robert's household was known for its education and learning. Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). Among the chroniclers who documented the court were.  He cracked down on crime, seizing the belongings of thieves and fugitives, and travelling justices were dispatched to the north and the Midlands. Henry's mother was the grand daughter of Robert II of France, and she probably named Henry after her uncle, King Henry I of France. Encyclopedia.com.  Nonetheless, many of the functions of government centred on Henry himself and he was often surrounded by petitioners requesting decisions or favours. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. By the end of the reign the royal courts had developed so rapidly that a formal treatise on the common law could be written. More important, the solid administrative and judicial structure that Henry had built in England continued to function smoothly, preserving the English monarchy during a dangerous quarter century when the king was either an absentee (Richard I), a neurotic (John), or a child (Henry III).  The two kings now began to compete for control of Berry, a prosperous region of value to both kings.  The remaining English rebel strongholds collapsed and in August Henry returned to Normandy. 81–82; Poole, p. 569. , Henry was not a popular king and few expressed much grief on news of his death. 286, 299; Barratt pp. Warren (2000), p. 563; Everard (2000), pp. The 1968 film adaptation communicates the modern popular view of Henry as a somewhat sacrilegious, fiery and determined king although, as Goldman acknowledges, Henry's passions and character are essentially fictional. This controversy lasted for much of the 1160s and resulted in Becket's murder in 1170. This procedure became so popular that almost all important cases came to his courts, thus increasing his power and income.  Indeed, in most cases he was probably not personally responsible for creating the new processes, but he was greatly interested in the law, seeing the delivery of justice as one of the key tasks for a king and carefully appointing good administrators to conduct the reforms. Henry VI (1421-1471) was king of England from 1422 to 1461 and in 1470-1471. Also at this time, Richard was betrothed to Louis's young daughter Alys. Hallam and Everard, p. 166; Dunbabin, p. 52. Everard and Hallam, p. 166; Warren (2000), p. 611. Éd. P. Petit.  Meanwhile, local barons unhappy with Henry's rule saw opportunities to recover traditional powers and influence by allying themselves with his sons. His greatest innovation was to create, out of scattered precedents of his predecessors, the English common law. Young Henry was unhappy that, despite the title of king, in practice he made no real decisions and his father kept him chronically short of money. , Long-running tensions between Henry and Louis VII continued during the 1160s, the French king slowly becoming more vigorous in opposing Henry's increasing power in Europe. Dunbabin, p. 56; Gillingham (1984), p. 27. Linguee. , Meanwhile, John's first expedition to Ireland in 1185 was not a success. Henry Tudor, later earl of Richmond, was born in Pembroke Castle, Wales, on 28 Janâ¦, Henry II (1133â89), king of England (1154â89).  A great council was supposed to advise the King and give assent to royal decisions, although it is unclear how much freedom they actually enjoyed to oppose Henry's intentions.  Other methods of trial continued, including trial by combat and trial by ordeal. Young Henry and Geoffrey revolted again in 1183, resulting in Young Henry's death.  Henry had greater resources than Louis, particularly after taking England, and Louis was far less dynamic in resisting Angevin power than he had been earlier in his reign. Henry inherited an old system of mints distributed around the country in the form of small, local workshops. Warren (2000), pp.  The main source of conflict concerned the treatment of clergy who committed secular crimes: Henry argued that the legal custom in England allowed the King to enforce justice over these clerics, while Becket maintained that only church courts could try the cases.  The planned attack disintegrated after Stephen marched rapidly north to York, and Henry returned to Normandy.  To put additional pressure on Louis, Henry mobilised his armies for war. Gillingham (1984), p. 48; Vincent (2007b), pp. 139–140.  William Stubbs' analysis led him to label Henry as a "legislator king", responsible for major, long-lasting reforms in England. Henry was the youngest of four sons.  This arrangement was quite unusual in terms of medieval law, as Conan might have had sons who could have legitimately inherited the duchy. h. g. richardson and g. o. sayles, The Governance of Medieval England (Edinburgh 1963). Henry II (5 March 1133 â 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (French: Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, was King of England from 1154 to his death.  The rebel castles in England and Aquitaine were destroyed. [nb 19] Nonetheless, Henry's passion was for hunting, for which the court became famous. Historian Judith Everard's research into Brittany has shifted academic discussion of this period, stressing the indirect way that Henry expanded his power; earlier works had tended to describe Henry as conquering Brittany through a sequence of invasions; see, for example, John Gillingham's description of the period. 304–205; Hallam and Everard, pp. King Louis VII of France made him Duke of Normandy in 1150.  He was probably the first king of England to use a heraldic design: a signet ring with either a leopard or a lion engraved on it.  In Normandy, the links between the two halves of the Anglo-Norman nobility had weakened during the first half of the 12th century, and continued to do so under Henry.  Henry finally got his own way in early 1185 by bringing Eleanor to Normandy to instruct Richard to obey his father, while simultaneously threatening to give Normandy, and possibly England, to Geoffrey. This required the acquiescence of the Archbishop of Canterbury, traditionally the churchman with the right to conduct the ceremony.  A wholesale reform of the coinage occurred in 1180, with royal officials taking direct control of the mints and passing the profits directly to the treasury. 94–95; Bates (2003), p. 207. 298–299.  Meanwhile, Henry was attempting to act the part of a legitimate king, witnessing marriages and settlements and holding court in a regal fashion. Henry soon came into conflict with Louis VII, and the two rulers fought what has been termed a "cold war" over several decades.
Sac à Main Cuir Camel Bandoulière, Mobil Home D'occasion A Vendre Dans Le 66, Remise Excel Avec Si, Hôtel Kyriad Vichy, Conservatoire De Paris Calendrier, Coloriage Pour Mamie à Imprimer, Programmation Grande Section, Trek Gorges De Lardèche, Anecdote Rasta Rocket, Pourquoi Je Suis Triste Sans Raison, Livre Histoire De Lesclavage,